Gitumoni Konwar, Gogoi, Goswami, and Konjengbam: A review on awareness of first aid among students


Introduction

The child grows in this world with various injuries from minor to major which require first aid for quick healing process. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), road-related injuries were the ninth leading cause of disease in the world in 1990. They are expected to be ranked third after a heart attack and chemistry and major depression by 2020. Globally, related to injuries, including road injuries, homicides, suicides, and eight other out of 15 causes of death among 15- to 29-year-olds.1 First aid means first aid or immediate care given to a person who is injured or suddenly ill. First aid is the provision for the treatment of a person at risk of (or) a sudden assault (or) usually performed by a non-specialist person on a sick or injured person until you receive medical care for staff. Spinal cord injury or minor injuries may not require additional care unless first aid is needed. The lifestyles of modern people are very complex and in society everyone should be able to provide first aid to a sick or injured person until the patient reaches the medical staff.2

First aid care for the sick or injured. Its goal is to stop and, if possible, reverse the damage. It involves quick and easy steps such as exhaling air, applying pressure to bleeding wounds, or burning chemical burns on the eyes or skin. First-aid workers are people who are usually present, usually, workers who are unfamiliar with certain job scenarios, and who may not have a medical degree but who need to be trained and prepared to perform certain tasks. Not all employees are ready to be trained in providing first aid. First-aid workers should be carefully selected, taking into account such qualities as trust, motivation, and resilience.3

Injuries are very common these days and can occur at any time in our daily lives. Among them, injuries to school children are listed for the most part. The most common causes of school-related injuries requiring hospitalization are falls and sports activities. Machine-related injuries occur on the school playground during school hours and this requires adequate supervision. It includes self-help and residential care if medical aid isn't available or delayed. It includes well-chosen words of encouragement, proof of willingness to help, and encouraging self-confidence by showing competence.4

First Aid

The National First Aid Science Advisory Board has described first aid as diagnostic and interventions that can be performed by an observer (or victim) with little or no medical equipment.5 It is the first and immediate aid provided to any person suffering from a minor or serious illness or injury, with the care provided to save a life, prevent the condition from getting worse, or promote recovery. It includes initial intervention in a critical situation before receiving professional medical attention, such as performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) while waiting for an ambulance, as well as complete treatment of minor ailments. First aid is usually done by a person with basic medical training. First aid is used for people who are injured or sick in any life-threatening condition to save lives, prevent damage or contribute to the treatment process before receiving professional care. At one point in the medical curriculum, they were taught how to deal with emergencies in a hospital emergency where drugs and other needs are present. However, sufficient knowledge is required to manage an emergency at the scene of an emergency before hospitalization.6

Information and attitude related to first aid

In general, school students have a bad idea about safe working conditions in the event of an injury, so most of them should be encouraged to learn about first aid and basic health support which are the key to human survival in chains. Basic training prepares students to respond to situations and provides quick, effective management in a variety of situations such as; emergencies of congestion, respiration and circulation, respiratory and cardiac arrest, fractures, hemorrhage, and cardiac resuscitation training.5 Providing information and training on the proper management of injuries and illnesses for students is important for two reasons; first, it will improve their health knowledge which can ultimately lead to health and safe lives. Second, they can be used as an agent for family and community change. Therefore, the school should prepare students to meet these needs including; assistance to victims, immediate response to emergencies, care for their safety, and the safety of victims.7

Glendon et al, suggested that teaching first aid to students is probably the most expensive in terms of saving lives. They also recommended that first aid should be taught in schools. England, Roysamb, Smedslund, and Sogarrd have studied the introduction of first aid training for advanced students. Researchers measured the implementation of the program by teachers and the attitude and knowledge of their students. They found that their students and teachers who used the program enthusiastically had better conditions with regard to the use of first aid and were more knowledgeable about first aid. 8

Awareness related to first aid

Studies around the world have taken a different toll on the provision of first aid in schools and among teachers. In European studies, for example, the current tradition is that all teachers must first study first aid and then teach students - from the nursing school level - first aid that can be used in classrooms.9

Yurumez in a study conducted in Turkey reported that teacher training in first aid was substandard and most teachers reported the need to attend first aid training. In a study conducted in Egypt, the author reported that inadequate school teachers' knowledge of first aid management was due to a lack of training in a particular education curriculum. Unsatisfactory information in the current course may be due to the fact that very little is provided by school administrators and training staff for first aid. Therefore, there seems to be a pressing need to strengthen school health services with the full participation of teachers and students, providing them with training and refresher opportunities through regular contact with them. The current concept of school health systems brings together healthcare professionals and parents and professionals from education to provide comprehensive child health care services. Here the researcher highlighted the importance of school health services through the formation of a school health care team consisting of a medical practitioner, a trained nurse, a female health visitor (LHV), a service provider, aaya, and a sweeper.10

Training aid related to first aid

First aid training is a contributing a lot in reducing the burden of disease and injury in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Evidence from Western countries has shown that children learning first aid, pediatric first aid training at LMIC could be a promising way forward. Therefore, first aid training is being promoted by the World Bank as the most cost-effective way to reduce the burden of disease and injury, at a cost of only eight USD per year for the disabled. Although many studies showing the effectiveness of adult training programs are conducted in Western settings, other studies from sub-Saharan Africa are also available, and several African Red Cross National Organizations are organizing first aid training for adults.11

The literature suggests that assisted distribution of first aid can have the benefits of preventing injuries by reducing road accidents, reducing workplace accidents, and increasing safety awareness. Studies show the benefits of first aid in preventing and controlling injuries. There has been support in combining cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training in schools with the aim of increasing the rate of standalone CPR, thereby increasing the survival rate of cardiac arrest in hospitals.12

Conclusion

Current research has identified a perceived need for information about first aid among school students and thus justifies that first aid education should be compulsory in the school syllabus. This will not only improve their skills in emergency management but is also an important step in spreading the message of first aid to the community. The need to keep a first aid kit with recommended equipment and ready-to-use medicines at home and at school can go a long way toward saving valuable life. It is reasonable to conclude that the primary purpose of first aid is not to treat, or diagnose, but to stabilize the patient. The unique value of the first responder lies in their ability to remove the immediate threat to health and to prepare the patient for the next echelon of care.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest in this paper.

Source of Funding

None.

References

1 

World Health Organization. Road injuries in 2017. Retrieved 5 May 2018http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs358/en/

2 

NAM Sharif MK CheHasan FIC Jamaludin MKZH Fildaus The need for first aid education for young people1st International Nursing Scholar Congress28Depok (Indonesia)2016138

3 

Seven important first aid steps, Deejay Sam, 12 Feb. 2011http://www.preservearticles.com/201101032370/first-aid-and- home-remedies.html

4 

Reasons why first aid is important, Daily DNA News Analysis 24 Dec 2010 http://healthgohealth.blogspot.in/2011/09/5-reasons-why-first-aid-training-is.html

5 

M Khatatbeh First aid information among students. International Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published online 2016 Jan 22Int J Prevent Med20167124

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N Joseph GS Kumar YPR Babu M Nelliyanil U Bhaskaran Knowledge of First Aid SkillsAnn Med Health Sci Res2014421626

8 

R Kapoor S Vyas P Mashru A Mehta S Mehta V Mehta The Impact of Knowledge and Attitude Training on First AidNational J Public Med2017873804

9 

J Semwal Study of information and attitudes of first aid among school childrenInt J Comm Med Public Health20174810.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20173348

10 

FM Qureshi N Khalid S Nigah-e-Mumtaz T Assad K Noreen First Aid Centers for school conditionsPaper ListPak J Med Sci20183422726

11 

E De Buck J Laermans V Anne-Catherine K Dockx P Vandekerckhove H Geduld Educational and educational materials for first aid training for childrenBMC Public Health20202010.1186/s12889-020-08857-5

12 

B Reveruzzi L Buckley M Shehan First aid training programs designed for school201686426672



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Article History

Received : 13-09-2021

Accepted : 29-09-2021

Available online : 19-10-2021


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https://doi.org/10.18231/j.ijpns.2021.018


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